The retina is the innermost layer of the wall of the eye and is made up of light-sensitive cells known as rods and cones, which detect shape, color and pattern. It is supported on the inside by the jelly-like vitreous, which fills the eyeball behind the lens. On its outer side the retina is attached to the choroid, or middle layer, which is rich in blood vessels. Nerve fibers leaving the retina bundle together to form the optic nerve, which relays visual information to the brain. Retinal detachment surgery involves reattaching the retina to the back of the eye and sealing any breaks or holes in the retina. The treatment success rate is high, with around nine out of 10 retinas able to be reattached. Retinal detachment is when the retina pulls away from the tissue around it (the choroid), which supplies it with oxygen and nutrients. When the retina is detached it can no longer function and vision is lost. The most common cause of retinal detachment is age-related shrinkage of the vitreous gel, which may lead to tearing at a weak point in the retina. Once such a tear or hole develops, fluid can collect beneath it and reduce the adhesion of the retina to the choroid, resulting in a detachment. Injury to the eye can also cause retinal detachment, although this is less common.
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